There are numerous viruses and worms which can put your computers, tablets, smartphones in danger. They can corrupt your data and destroy your important files too. One new threat has arisen, which is named as Ransomware. It contains a class of malwares which can stop access to your computer processor system. It infects your system and asks for a ransom amount to be paid to the worm developer, which in turn will remove or eradicate that worm from the system.
There are different forms of Ransomware, some of them encrypt files on the hardware of the system. On the other hand other may lock up your system and display messages. The message will aim to make the user to pay the ransom amount to make the system worm free. In the beginning it attacked in Russia and gradually the threats of Ransomware were increasing on international grounds. In mid of this year McAfee, a security software dealer, revealed that data on Ransomware attacks. It collected more than 3,20,000 distinct samples of the worm from year 2012-13. They announced that the worm is building up the number of problems from last several quarters and situation is becoming worse.
Taking a look at the operation of the worm, it specifically propogates same as Trojan. It is like a traditional computer worm which enters into the computer system while downloading a file or during vulnerability in a network service. The program in turn runs a payload like one which will initiate to encrypt personal files on the hard drive. Some refined Ransomware may hybrid encrypt the user’s plaintext with a symmetric key and a fixed public key. The creator of the worm is the only person who has the required private decryption key. Some Ransomware payloads don’t need encryption even. In this case the payload is an application designed to confined victim’s interaction with the system.
Android 4.4 KitKat
Since the smartphones are available in the market, the demand for better android is always growing. The very first android 1.0 was launched in year 2008. Since then it’s undergoing the number of updates to the base OS. Then the release of android 1.5 Cupcake took place, then 1.6 Éclair, then 2.2-2.2.3 Froyo, then 2.3 – 2.3.7 gingerbread. After this it was android 3.0 – 3.2.6 Honeycomb, then 4.0 – 4.0.4 Ice Cream Sandwich, then 4.1 – 4.3 Jelly bean and latest one is android 4.4 Kitkat. Its release was announced in the beginning of year 2013.
The Kitkat update to the Android OS brings some visual changes, including more immersive graphics, as well as deeper integration with Google’s intelligent assistant, Google Now, among other changes and improvements.
Google’s release of android 4.4 cleared that there will be some changes and new features available to the users. The newest version of android is made to work on vast range of devices with various amount of RAM. The main highlight of Kitkat is the memory optimization. The new aspects of Android Kitkat with particularly alter the user’s idea of interaction with android phones and tablets. Apps in android now have a vast area to do the experiment and create new apps. Designers can hide the menu, navigation bars, buttons and other chrome to offer full touch screen app. We can say they can put out of sight the whole system interface while doing work on app. Users can get better e-reader, games and multimedia apps. To uncover the navigation bars, menus and buttons, Kitkat provide new gesture to swipe from top or bottom. Not only this, users can do animation between scenes of distinct page or event or app via new transition framework. This will allow apps to feature fades, resizing and other kind of animations. If user is not very tech-friendly and is unable to manage animations or transition then a function named as “transition manager” is available to do it automatically as per the apps viewing series.
The special features of new android 4.4 Kitkat are as follows:-
- Screen recording: it supports screen recording option which permits users to capture video at the time of using device or store the file in MP4 format. Developers, reviewers and end-users can create a high quality video of their apps directly from the device. The recording can be done at any device-supported resolution function. This can be found via ADB (Android Debug Bridge) tool in android SDK or via the Android Studio integrated developer environment. All this permits the designers or reviewers or users to make tutorials for apps, develop marketing videos, testify the apps etc.
- Storage access: users can open or browse their documents in an app from different cloud storage providers through new storage access framework. The cloud source supplier or local storage services can utilize new system within android by applying new document provider. The document provider class within Android has the APIs (application programming interfaces) which are responsible to browse, read, manage or write docs within apps from any source. Document may be in form of text file, wallpaper, audio file, pictures, video file etc.
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H.265 or HEVC
H.265 is nothing but a new video compression format or code. The most popular worldwide code was H.264 for all the kind of video encoding purpose. Either it is a film or sports show or live show or local broadcast or TV show or MP4 or MVK file. H.265 is also named as HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding ) is designed with the joint efforts of ISO/ IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) and ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) as ISO/IEC 23008-2 MPEG-H Part 2 and ITU-T H.265. A joint collaborative group of MPEG and VCEG worked together to invent new video coding format on Video Coding (JCT-VC) to define the HEVC standard.
A video is nothing but a series of individual frames or images. During compression, each frame is divided by some video encoder into large blocks. The brightness and colour value of every block is then translated into various frequencies to simplify the encoding process. This is where the data size is pulled down and finally the compression of video data takes place. HEVC is a quick and efficient video compression format which is found the double up the data compression ratio as compared to its previous version H.264 (at same level of video quality). It is easily compatible with new TV set which support 8KUHD with resolution up to 8192 x 4320. The first edition of the standard was prepared and published in the beginning of this year 2013.
The chief aim of any video coding standard is to have the highest coding efficiency in lowest possible time. The efficiency of the code is calculated from the ability to encode the video with lowest possible bit rate on maintaining some level of video quality. There are 2 specific and standardized ways to check the coding efficiency of a video code. One is objective metric PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratio) and second is subjective assessment. The later one is considered to be the most important way to measure video coding efficiency since decades.
FD SOI Transistor
Before we know what is FD SOI transistor, let us know what is transistor. It is a semiconductor device which placed in most of the electronic circuitry and said to be the building blocks of the digital world. Earlier it was very big in size but with the enhancement in technology the manufacturing of the transistor, shape and size also underwent lot of changes.
According to Moore’s law, the number of transistors which can be placed over IC doubles every year. The Intel Pentium 4 which appeared 8 years back had 125 million transistors and single 90nm chip. On other hand 2nd hand intel core processor utilized billion of transistor on a single IC. Over the decades, transistors have been continuously scaled down in size, to improve the performance and reduce power consumption. This can in turn lead to better digital devices and an enhanced costumer experience. Thus the size of transistor needs to be minimized and response of the device needs to be faster. But the conventional transistors which are being used till date are scaled upto 32nm. Further decrease in the size of this transistor is restricted due to unwanted results. On further reducing the size below 32nm the transistors don’t produce desired results. Thus to overcome this limitation there was a need to get a change in the architecture of the transistor.
This led to the birth of FD SOI transistors in year 2012. It is fully depleted silicon on insulator transistor which is a good alternative and aptly effective transistor design. FD SOI is a planar process technology which provides the profits of decreased silicon and addition of simplicity in design. Bulk transistors have been the appropriate standard for decades. But FD SOI is based on two innovative techniques. First is an ultra thin layer of insulator called the buried oxide. Second is the ultra thin channel under which this buried oxide is placed. This channel is distinct from conduction channel as in conventional process. It does not have any dopant, so it is fully depleted. The duo combination is called ultra thin body and buried oxide. This prevents the channel leakage problem of bulk transistors.
New matter hydrogel with adhesive to facilitate knee cartilage treatment
Researchers have found a material which can be used to control the release of a substance at the time of cyclic mechanical loading for any human knee. This work provided a sound treatment technique for particular tissues such as knee cartilage. In case if users wants to regenerate knee cartilage, technically it is required to be placed under mechanical stress because whenever we take a step human knees take the weight. When the stimulation is done in this way the cartilage cells make receptors which are sensitive to the factor of growth of an organism. At this specific moment even the human is suggested to take proper medications.
Damage or any kind of injury that cartilage (a flexible but tough material which gives shape to ears, nose and lines the surface of joints, to make movement easy and smooth) undergoes is due to any disease or fault genes or breakage. Micro-fracture is a standard to heal the cartilage repair but the holes in cartilage caused due to smash is often recovered, either it fails to stimulate with new cartilage growth or grows cartilage which not stronger than the original tissue.
Studying and analyzing these facts Dominique Pioletti and Harm Anton Klok from EDF have disclosed to prepare such a healing material which takes the form of a hydrogel matrix, liposometype nano-particles and then a payload (probably a dye). Whenever a cyclic mechanical load is applied, this unique hydrogel matrix heats up and shrinks the liposomes diameter up to a significant level. This in turn gives a free space in the matrix which raises the permeability and helping the release of dye from the matrix.
The scientists plan to verify which that heating is a responsive result from the continuous process of mechanical loading which caused dye to release. During the initial experiment period, the matter was confined to cyclic mechanical loading only but the heat released was evacuated in order to save any local temperature rising in the matter.